Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование»




НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование»
страница1/5
Дата публикации29.01.2014
Размер0.73 Mb.
ТипУчебно-методическое пособие
www.lit-yaz.ru > Культура > Учебно-методическое пособие
  1   2   3   4   5


Министерство образования и науки Красноярского края

КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»

Иностранный язык.

Фонетический практикум.

Согласные звуки английского языка
Учебно-методическое пособие

для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы
Специальность 050146 – «Преподавание в начальных классах»

Специальность 050144 – «Дошкольное образование»

Специальность 050141 – «Физическая культура»


Канск 2012

Автор-составитель: Л.Л. Торгашина, преподаватель КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»

Рецензент: С.А. Агапова, канд. филол. наук, доцент ФГБОУ ВПО «КГПУ им. В.П. Астафьева»
^ Иностранный язык. Фонетический практикум. Согласные звуки английского языка: учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов/ автор-сост. Л.Л. Торгашина, рец. С.А. Агапова; КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж». Канск, 2012. – 34 с

Настоящее пособие предназначено для работы над постановкой и исправления произношения. Пособие содержит теоретическую часть, в которой содержится описание английских согласных звуков, даны основные принципы классификации английский согласных звуков. Практическая часть содержит стихотворения английских и американских авторов. Фонетические упражнения для закрепления первичных установок и развития артикуляционной техники представлены позиционно каждой фонеме. Рифмовки, поговорки, тренировочные упражнения, диалоги, направленные на отработку артикуляции и правильную интонацию, помогут студентам в успешном овладении английским произношением. Данное издание предназначено для специальностей 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах», 050144 «Дошкольное образование», 050141 «Физическая культура» по ОГСЭ. 04 «Иностранный язык».

© КГАОУ СПО «Канский педагогический колледж»

Оглавление


Оглавление 4

^ ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКАЯ ЧАСТЬ 6

КЛАССИФИКАЦИЯ 6

ДИФТОНГИ 11

КРАТКИЕ ГЛАСНЫЕ ФОНЕМЫ 14

СТИХИ ДЛЯ ВЫРАЗИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ И ЗАУЧИВАНИЯ НАИЗУСТЬ 27

Введение

Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов I курса педагогических колледжей изучающих английский язык  в работе над постановкой, а так же для исправления произношения. Пособие может быть использовано для самостоятельной работы.

Пособие содержит описательно-теоретическую часть, в которой содержится описание английских гласных фонем и дифтонгов, даны основные принципы классификации английский гласных звуков.

Практическая часть содержит стихотворения английских и американских авторов. В методической литературе вопрос о роли поэзии не нашел освещения; но стихи являются универсальной базой для отработки и создания произносительных навыков. Фонетические упражнения для закрепления первичных установок и развития артикуляционной техники представлены позиционно каждой фонеме. Рифмовки, поговорки, дриллы, диалоги, направленные на отработку произношения и правильную речь, помогут студентам успешному овладению английским языком.

^

ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКАЯ ЧАСТЬ

КЛАССИФИКАЦИЯ


1. The English vowel phonemes are divided onto two large groups: monophthongs and diphthongs.

A monophthong is a pure (unchanging) vowel sound. In its pronunciation the organs of speech do not change their position throughout the duration of the vowel. [i],[e],[æ],[ס],[u],[Λ],[ə],[α:],[ ], [з:]

A diphthong is a complex sound consisting of two vowel elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of a diphthong the organs of speech start in the position of one vowel and glide in the direction of another vowel. The first element of an English diphthong is called the nucleus. It is strong, clear and distinct. The second element is rather weak. It is called glide.

There are 8 diphthongs. There are two vowels in English ([i:] and [u:]) which may have a diphthongal pronunciation. These vowels are called diphthongized vowels, or diphthongoids.

Thus the English monophthongs may be classified according to the following principles:

I .According to the tongue position

II. According to the lip position

III. According to the length of the vowel

IV. According to the degree of tenseness.

I) According to the tongue position

In vowel production the tongue may move in a horizontal direction and in a vertical direction.
1)According to the horizontal movement of the tongue( the position of the bulk of the tongue) vowels are divided into five groups:

a) front

b) front-retracted

c) central

d) back

e) back-advanced.

2) According to the vertical movement of the tongue (the height of the raised part of the tongue) vowels are divided into three groups:

A) close or high vowels

B) open or low vowels

C) mid-open or mid vowels.

^ According to the horizontal movement of the tongue.

  1. Front vowels are those which are produced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the mouth. The front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate, forming a large empty space in the back part of the mouth. The English front vowels are [i:], [e], [æ] and the nucleus of [εə]. Russian front vowels are [и], and [э].

  2. Front-retracted vowels are those which are produced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the mouth, but some retracted. The front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate. There is only one front-retracted monophthong in English: [i]. The nuclei of the diphthongs [ai] and [au] are also front-retracted. There are no front-retracted vowels in Russian.

  3. Central vowels are those in which the central part of the tongue is raised towards. The junction is between the hard and soft palate. English central vowels are [Λ], [з:], [ə] and the nucleus of [ou]. The Russian central vowels are [ы] and [A].

  4. Back vowels are those which are produced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth. The back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate, forming an empty space in the front part of the mouth. The English back vowels are [ס], [ :], [u:] and the nucleus of the diphthong [ בi ]. The Russian back vowels are [o], [у].

  5. Back-advanced vowels are those which are produced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth but some advanced. The back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the front part of the soft palate. The English back-advanced vowels are [α ].[υ]. There are no back-advanced vowels in Russian.

According to the vertical movement of the tongue (the height of the raised part of the tongue) vowels are divided into three groups:

A) close or high vowels

B) open or low vowels

C) mid-open or mid vowels.

A) Close (high) vowels are those which are produced when one of the parts of the tongue comes close to the roof of the of the mouth and the air-passage is narrowed.

The English close or high vowels are [i],[i:], [u:], [υ].

The Russian close vowels are [и], [ы], [y].

B) Open (low) vowels are those which are produced when the raised part of the tongue is very low in the mouth and the air-passage is very wide.

The English open or low vowels are [æ], [α:], [ס], [Λ]. And the nuclei of [ai],[aυ]

The only open vowel in Russian is [a].

C) Mid-open (mid) vowels are those which are produced when the raised part of the tongue is half-way between its high and low positions.

The English mid-open or mid vowels are [e], [з:], [ə], [ o:] and the nuclei of [εə], [oυ].

The Russian mid-open vowels are [э], [o].

Each of the these three main tongue-positions (high, mid, low) has tow variations: narrow and broad.

^ II. According to the lip position vowels may be rounded and unrounded.

Rounded vowels are produced when the lips are more or less rounded. The English rounded vowels are [ס], [o:], [υ],[u:] and the nuclei of [oυ], [oi]

The Russian rounded vowels are [y], [o].

The Russian unrounded vowels are [э], [и], [a], [ы].

^ III. According to the degree of tenseness vowels are divided into tense and lax.

Tense vowels are produced when the organs of speech are tense.

All the English short vowels are tense: [i:],[α:], [u:],[כּ:],[з:]

Lax vowels are those which produced with lesser tenseness of the speech organs.

All the English short vowels are lax, [i],[e],[æ],[υ],[α],[Λ],[ə].

In addition to the above principals, the English vowels are also classified according to the character of their end. From this point of view they may be: checked and unchecked.

a)The English short vowels under stress are checked. So are the English long vowels and diphthongs when followed by voiceless consonants

E.g: bed [bed],not [nαt], pull [pυl], speak [spi:k], type [taip].

b) Unchecked vowels are those which pronounced with lessening the force of utterance towards their end. They have a weak end. The English long vowels and diphthongs when stressed both in open and in closed syllables followed by voiced consonants are unchecked. The same is true of all the English unstressed vowels no matter whether long or short

E.g: free [fri:], time[taim], attitude [ætitu:d], window[windoυ], city [siti].

The English vowel phonemes are not differentiated according to the position of the soft palate. They are all oral. In the pronunciation of any English vowel the soft palate is always raised and the entire volume of air passes out through the mouth cavity.

^ IV. According to the length vowels may be long and short.

The following English vowels may be describe as long: [i:], [a:], [o:], [u:], [з:].

The following English vowels may be describe as short: [i], [e], [ә],[][Λ], [υ], [æ].

ГЛАСНЫЕ

[i], [i:] – production of articulation

The four English front monophthongs [i], [i:], [e], [æ] are pronounced as follows.

The vowel [i:] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the mouth. The front of the tongue raised high in the direction of the hard palate. It’s long and tense. During the pronunciation of the vowel the tongue may slightly change its position. The front of the tongue may move from a more open and retracted position to a closer and more advanced. As a result the vowel is diphthongized. The lips are spread or neutral. The opening between the laws is rather narrow.

[i:] may be defined as front high-narrow (diphthongized) unrounded long and tense.

But in order to prevent palatalization, the front part of the tongue must be raised towards the hard palate after the release of the preceding consonant.

Russian palatalized English non-palatalized

[м’ ил] – мил [mi:l - meat

[ н’ит’] [ni:t] - neat

The vowel [i] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the front pert of the mouth but slightly retracted. The front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate but not so high as for [i:]. The lips are spread. The opening between jaws is narrow. The vowel [i] is short and lax.

^ The vowel [i] may be defined as front-retracted high-broad unrounded short and lax.

[e] production of articulation.

The vowel [e] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the hard palate, but a little less than the [i]-vowel. The lips are spread. The opening between the jaws is medium.

The vowel [e] is short and lax.

It may be defined as front mid-narrow unrounded short and lax.

It is similar to the Russian [э] between palatalized and a non-palatalized consonant as, for example, in дед [д’эт] but it is less open and more front than the Russian [э] in этот.

Russian learners are apt to replace the English [e] by the more open vowel [æ] e.g: men[men]-мужчины man [mæn] – мужчина

To prevent the substitution of [æ] for [e] the front of the tongue should be kept a little higher as compared its position for [æ] and the student is recommended not to open his mouth too wide, spread the lips a little.

[æ] production of articulation.

The vowel [æ] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the front part of the mouth cavity. The tongue is rather low in the mouth. The front of the tongue is slightly raised, but not so high as for [e].The lip position is neutral. The opening between the jaws is wide.

This vowel may be defined as front low-broad unrounded short and lax.

The five English back monophthongs [α:],[α], [ כּ:], [υ], [u:] are pronounced as follows.

[α:] production of articulation.

The vowel [α:] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth cavity but somewhat advanced. The back of the tongue is slightly raised. The lips are neutral. The opening between the jaws is wide.

The vowels [α:] is defined as back-advanced low-broad unrounded long and tense.

The vowel [α:] is more retracted than the Russian [a] in галка.

Russian learners are apt to replace the English [α:] by the Russian vowel [a]. to prevent this mistake the bulk of the tongue must be rather retracted as compared with its position when the principal variant of the Russian [a]-phoneme is pronounced.

It can also be recommended to pronounce the vowel [α:] on a lower pitch.[pit∫]-высота голосового тона.
The three English central monophthongs ([Λ], [з:], [ə:]) are pronounced as follows.

[Λ] - production of articulation.

The vowel [Λ] is pronounced with the central part of the tongue raised in the direction of the juncture of the hard and soft palate a little higher than for [a]. the lips are spread. The opening between the jaws is not so wide as for [α:].

[Λ] is defined as central low-narrow unrounded short and lax.

Students should be recommended to give a shade of [α:] to the vowel [Λ], other words to pronounce the vowel on a lower pitch.

The English vowel [Λ] is not so open as the Russian stressed [a], (E.g: in дан.)

It sounds like the Russian [Λ] in a pretonic syllable (E.g: какой [kΛkόй].)

In order not to replace the English [Λ] by the Russian [a] the tongue must be held a little higher as compare with its position in pronouncing the Russian stressed [a].

In order not to replace [Λ] by [α:] the bulk of the tongue must take up a more advanced position as compared with its position in pronouncing [α:], the central part of the tongue being raised a little higher than for [a].

Students must shorten the vowel and give a shade of [a] to it. To achieve the English [Λ] being short and checked it is necessary to lengthen the preceding consonant and pronounce the following consonant as quickly as possible.

Compare: much [mΛt∫] “много” – march[mα:t∫] “ марш“,

Cut [kΛt] “резать” - cart [kα:t] “телега”

[ɒ], [ɔ:]- production of articulation.

The vowel [ɒ] is pronounced with the tongue held in a position which is farther back than that of the [α:]. The lips are slightly rounded. The opening between the jaws is wide.

This vowel may be defined as back low-broad slightly rounded short and lax.

The Russian [o] is closer.

Such English words as not [nɒt], naught [nɔ:t] and note [noυt] would sound alike and might be confused.

The vowel [O:] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth cavity. The back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate, higher than for [ ]. The lips are rounded and slightly protruded to form an opening which is much smaller than for [ ]. The opening between the jaws is medium.

The vowel [O:] may be defined as fully back mid-broad rounded long and tense.

The Russian [o] is closer than the English [O:] and more rounded.

Students should be told to give a shade of [a] to the beginning of the vowel [O:], if students pronounce the vowel [O:] with an [a]-glide of [у] to the end of the vowel.

[υ],[u:]- production of articulation.

The vowel [υ] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue in the back part of the mouth cavity. But somewhat advanced. The back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the front part of the soft palate higher than for [Ɔ:]. The lips are slightly rounded.

It may be defined as back-advanced high-broad slightly rounded short and lax.

The Russian [у] is more back. It is pronounced with the lips far more rounded and protruded than for [υ].

In order to not to replace the English [υ] by the Russian vowel [у], the lips must be rounded less and less protruded. A very close approach to the correct quality of the English [υ] is trying to pronounce a vowel intermediate in quality between the Russian [у] and [ы].

If students pronounce an [ы]-like sound instead of [υ] they should give a shade of [у] to the vowel.

The vowel [u:] is pronounced with the bulk of the tongue retracted more than for [υ]. The back of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate higher than for [υ], but not so high. It is long and tense. During the pronunciation of [u:] the tongue may move from a more advanced and open position to a closer and more retracted position, as a result of which the vowel is diphthongized.

In this case, the tenseness of the vowel increases towards the end. At the beginning of [u:] the lips are fairly rounded. Towards the end the lips are still more rounded. The opening between the jaws is narrower than the phoneme [υ].

The vowel [u:] may be defined as back high-narrow diphthongized rounded long and tense.

The English [u:] is not so retracted, so close as the Russian [у].

In order not to replace the English [u:] by the Russian vowel [у], the lips must be rounded and less protruded. Student is recommended to give a shade of [ы] to the vowel. If students pronounce an [ы]-like sound instead of [u:] they should give a shade of [у] to the vowel.

[ə], [з:] - production of articulation.

The vowel [з:] is pronounced with the central part of the tongue raised almost as high as for [e]. There is no lip-rounding. The opening between the jaws is narrow.

The vowel [з:] may be defined as central mid-narrow unrounded long and tense.

In Russian there is no vowel sound like the English [з:].

Russian learners are apt to replace the English [з:] by the Russian vowel [o].

The most important point is the tip of the tongue touches the base of the lower teeth. The lips must be spread, showing between the teeth a little. There must be no lip-rounding and no arching of the tongue. Keeping the organs of speech in the position, the students aim the quality between the Russian vowels [э] and [o].

If he errs on the side of the Russian [э], he should make the sound a little more like the Russian vowel [o]. If the mistake is on the side of the Russian [o], the learner should pronounce a vowel that is a little closer to the Russian [э].
[‘o] - [з:] [‘э] - [з:]

[т’орн] терн – [tз:n] turn [т’эн’] тень - [tз:n] turn

The vowel [ə] is pronounced with the central part of the tongue raised a little, but less than for [з:]. The lips are neutral. The opening between the jaws is narrow.

The vowel [ə] may be defined as central mid-broad unrounded short and lax.

The vowel [ə] is only used in unstressed position.

There is no vowel in Russian that fully coincides in quality with the English neutral vowel.

Russian learners are apt to replace the English [ə] by the Russian [э] and [a]. The nearest Russian vowel to the English neutral vowel [ə] is used at the end of a word in the unstressed Russian a [ъ] in a word-final position.

Compare: the English neutral vowel [ə] at the end of runner [rΛnə] with the Russian unstressed [ъ] at the end of рана [ранъ].
  1   2   3   4   5

Добавить документ в свой блог или на сайт

Похожие:

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconГрафик учебного процесса на 2012-2013 учебный год Специальность 050146...
Технические средства обучения с методикой применения в учебно-воспитательном процессе

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconГрафик учебного процесса на 2012-2013 учебный год Специальность 050146...
Мдк. 01. 04. Теоретические основы начального курса математики с методикой преподавания

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconУчебно-методическое пособие к дисциплине «Введение в специальность»
Введение в специальность. Дидактические материалы: Учебно-методическое пособие/ В. Д. Запойнов, В. И. Федин, Н. Н. Димов

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconМетодическое пособие представляет собой сборник дидактического материала,...
Методическое пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 050709 Преподавание в начальных классах, 050720 Физическая...

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconГрафик учебного процесса на 2012-2013 учебный год Специальность 050144...

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconУчебно-методическое пособие специальность 050104 «Безопасность жизнедеятельности»
Учебно-методическое пособие / М. Б. Звонкова, А. В. Неделяева, Ю. В. Егорова, Е. Л. Агеева Н. Новгород: нгпу, 2008. 48 с

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconМетодические указания к летней педагогической практике Специальность...
Автор-составитель: Н. Х. Файзулина, преподаватель кгаоу спо «Канский педагогический колледж», Н. М. Ходакова, педагог-организатор...

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconСпециальность 050709 Преподавание в начальных классах с дополнительной...

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» icon050146 Преподавание в начальных классах

Учебно-методическое пособие для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы Специальность 050146 «Преподавание в начальных классах» Специальность 050144 «Дошкольное образование» iconУчебно-методическое пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов заочной формы обучения
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для организации самостоятельной работы студентов заочной формы обучения по специальности...



Образовательный материал



При копировании материала укажите ссылку © 2013
контакты
www.lit-yaz.ru
главная страница