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Тема заняття та його план

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Evolution of Languages and Scope of Language History

Topics for Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Subject and aims of the history of English. Sources of language history. Evolution of language and scope of language history. Statics and dynamics in language history. Concept of linguistic change. Rate of linguistic change. Mechanism of change. Role of synchronic variation. Causes of language evolution.
^ GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Modern Germanic languages. The earliest period of Germanic history. Proto-Germanic.East Germanic. North Germanic. West Germanic. Germanic languages.
LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Phonetics: Word Stress. Vowels. Consonants. Proto-Germanic Consonant Shift. Interpretation of the Proto-Germanic Consonant Shift.

Grammar:Form-building means. Vowel gradation with special reference to verbs. Simplification of word structure in Late Proto-Germanic. Role of sterm-suffixes in the formation of declensions. Strong and weak verbs.

Vocabulary.

Practical assignments

    1. At first glance the vocabulary of the language seems to change very rapidly, as new words spring up all the time. Could the following words be regarded as absolutely new? (Note the meaning, component parts and word-building pattern): jet-plane (cf. airplane), type-script (cf manuscript), air-lift, baby-sitter, sputnik, Soviet, safari, best-seller, cyclization, air-taxi, astrobiology, sunsuit, pepper, gas.

    2. In the 14lh c. the following words were pronounced exactly as they are spelt, the Latin letters retaining their original sound values. Show the phonetic changes since the 14th c.: moon, fat, meet, rider, want, knee, turn, first, part, for, often, e. G. nut − [nut] > [nʌt].

    3. Рoint out the peculiarities in grammatical forms in the following passages from Shakespeare's sonnets and describe the changes which must have occurred after the 17th c.:

      1. As fast as thou shalt wane, so fast thou grow'st In one of thine, from that which thou departest ...

      2. It is thy spirit that thou send'st from thee ... It is my love that keeps mine eyes awake; Mine own true love that doth my rest defeat −

      3. Bring me within the level of your frown. But shoot not at me in your wakened hate!

    4. Comment on the following quotations from the works of prominent modern linguists and speak on the problems of linguistic change:

      1. One may say with R. Jakobson, a little paradoxically, that a linguistic change is a synchronic fact. (A. Sommerfelt).

      2. Visible change is the tip of an iceberg. Every alteration that eventually establishes itself, had to exist formerly as a choice. This means that the seeded for variation in time is simply the whole landscape of variation in space. (D. Bolinger)

      3. The structure of language is nothing but the unstable balance between the needs of communication, which require more numerous and more specific and more frequently occurring units. (A. Martinet)

"That two forms, the new and the old, can occasionally exist in wholly free variation is a possibility that has not yet been disproved but, as Bloomfield rightly remarked "when a speaker knows two rival forms, they differ in connotation, since he has heard them from different persons under different circumstances". (M. Samuels).

    1. Account for the following place names: Germany, Saxony, Bavaria, Anglia, Thuringia, Swabia, Gothenburg, Gothland, Burgundy, Allemagne (T"r for Germany), Gotha, Jutland, France, Frankfurt, Normandy, Anglesea, England.

    2. Analyse the shifting of word stress in word-building and form-building and point out the words which can illustrate the original Germanic way of word accentuation: read, reading, re-read, readable; bear v., bearer, unbearable, satisfy, satisfaction, unsatisfactorily; circumstance, circumstantial, circumstatiality.

    3. Explain the sound correspondence in the following parallels from Germanic and non-Germanic languages (the sounds are italicized).

R боль OE balu 'mischief';

R cоль G Salz 'salt'

L gena OE cm [kin] (NE fee)

L pecus GtfdXhu, OEfeoh

(NE fee)

R нагой ' NE naked, G nackt

R приятель NE frіend

R дерево Gt triu, NE tree

L domare NE tаme

    1. Analyse the consonant correspondences in the following groups of words and classify the words into Germanic and non-Germanic: foot, pedal, pedestrian; twofold double, doublet, twin, brotherly, fraternal; tooth, dental, dentist; canine, hound; hearty, cordial; three, trinity; decade, decimals, ten; agriculture, acre; agnostic, know; tame, domestic.

    2. Why can examples from the Gothic language often be used to illustrate the PG state while OE and OHG examples are less suitable for the purpose?

    3. Classify the following Mod E verbs into descendants of the strong verbs and the weak verbs (Note that the PG-d-became d or t in English): sing, live, rise, look, answer, speak, run, shake, warn.

    4. Prove that suppletion is an ancient way of form-building which goes back to the epoch of the PIE parent-language.

12. We can infer a good deal about the culture of the people, their s structure and geographical conditions from the words of their language. Wha be reconstructed of the life of the Teutons from the following list of English \v whose cognates are found in other Germanic languages: borough, brew, t cliff, earl, east, lore, king, knead, north, sea, seal, ship, south, steer, stranc were, west, whale, wheat?
ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Верба Л.Г. Історія англійської мови. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2006. – 296 с.

2. Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М., 2005. – 348 с.
^ ДОДАТКОВА ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Аракин И.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. – М., 1955.

2. Бруннер К. История английского языка. Перев.с нем. – М.: Иностранная литература, т. I, II, 1956.

3. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева Л.Н. Введение в германскую филологию. – М., 1980.

4. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М., 1976.

5. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л., 1973.

6. Смирницкий А.И. История английского языка. Курс лекций. – М., 1965.

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^ Chronological Divisions in the History of English.

Old English. Historical background

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Pre-Germanic Britain. Germanic settlement of Britain. Beginning of English. Events of external history between the 5th and 11th c.

Old English dialects. Linguistic situation.
^ OLD ENGLISH WRITTEN RECORDS

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Runic Inscriptions. Old English Manuscripts. Principal Old English Written Records.
OLD ENGLISH ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION
Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Old English alphabet. The rules of pronunciation.
Practical assignments

            1. What languages were spoken in the British Isles prior to the Germanic invasion? Which of their descendants have survived today?

            2. What historical events account for the influence of Latin on OE?

            3. Describe the linguistic situation in Britain before and after the Germanic settlement.

            4. Explain the origin of the following place names: Britain, Scotland, Great Britain, Bretange, England, Sussex, Essex, Middlessex, Wess ex, Northumberland\ Wales, Cornwall.

            5. The OE language is often called Anglo-Saxon. Why is this term not full} justified?

Why can we regard the group of OE dialects as a single language despite their differences, which continued to grow in later OE? What binds them together?
ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Верба Л.Г. Історія англійської мови. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2006. – 296 с.

2. Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М., 2005. – 348 с.
^ ДОДАТКОВА ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Аракин И.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. – М., 1955.

2. Бруннер К. История английского языка. Перев.с нем. – М.: Иностранная литература, т. I, II, 1956.

3. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева Л.Н. Введение в германскую филологию. – М., 1980.

4. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М., 1976.

5. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л., 1973.

6. Смирницкий А.И. История английского языка. Курс лекций. – М., 1965.

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^ OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Old English phonetics.Word Stress.

Origin of Old English vowels.Changes of stressed vowels in Early Old English. Independent changes. Development of monophthongs. Development of diphthongs. Assimilative vowel changes: breaking and diphthongisation. Palatal mutation. Changes of unstressed vowels in Early Old English. Old English vowel system (9th-10th c.).

^ Origin of Old English consonants.Consonant changes in pre-written periods. Treatment of fricatives. Hardening. Rhotacism. Voicing and devoicing. West Germanic gemination of consonants. Velar consonants in Early Old English. Growth of new phonemes. Loss of consonants in some positions. Old Englishconsonant system.
Practical assignments

                  1. Comment on the phonetic status of OE short diphthongs (give your reasons why they should be treated as phonemes or as allophones).

                  2. Account for the difference between the vowels in OE past, eal and monn, all going back to PG words with [a] (cf Gt pata; manna, alls).

                  3. Account for the interchange of vowels in OE dse as, da as (NE day - Dat. sg and Nom. pi); badian (NE bath, bathe).

                  4. Account for the difference between the root-vowels in OE and in parallels from other OG languages:

Gt langiza, OE lenra (NE longer)-, Gt marei, OHG meri, OE mere (NE obs. mere ,lake'); Gt sandian, OE sendan (NE send)-, Gtubils, OE yfel (NE evil)-, Gt be-laibian, OE laefan (NE leave); Gt. baugian, OE by an, ble ran ('bend'); Gtfulljan (NEfdl)\Gt laisjan - OE laeran 'teach'.

                  1. Explain the term "mutation" and innumerate the changes referred to mutations in Late PG and Early OE. What do they all have in common?

                  2. Define the sound values of the letters f, d, s and comment on the system of OE consonant phonemes:

OE heofon, faran, e-faran, hsefde, offrung, ofer (NE heaven, fare, had, offering, over)-, одде, oder, Nord, danne ('or', NE other, North, then)-, sae, wisse, ceosan, ceosan, ceas (NE sea, 'knew', choose, chose).
ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Верба Л.Г. Історія англійської мови. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2006. – 296 с.

2. Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М., 2005. – 348 с.
^ ДОДАТКОВА ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Аракин И.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. – М., 1955.

2. Бруннер К. История английского языка. Перев.с нем. – М.: Иностранная литература, т. I, II, 1956.

3. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева Л.Н. Введение в германскую филологию. – М., 1980.

4. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М., 1976.

5. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л., 1973.

6. Смирницкий А.И. История английского языка. Курс лекций. – М., 1965.

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^ HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM THE 11ΤΗ TO 15TH C. LINGUISTIC SITUATION. WRITTEN RECORDS

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Economic and social conditions in thellth-12th c.Effect of the Scandinavian invasions.The Norman conquest. Effect of the Norman conquest on the linguistic situation.Early Middle English dialects. Extension of English territory.Early Middle English written records.Late Middle English. Reestablishmentof English as the language of the state and literature. Dialects in Late Middle English. The London dialect.Written records in Late Middle English. The age of Chaucer.Principal Middle English written records.
^ Practical assignments

1. Compare the position of the Old Scandinavian and Anglo-Norman (French) in Early ME (comment on the geographical, social and linguistic differences).

2. Account for the shift of the dialect type of the speech of London in the 14th c. Why is the name "English" language more justified than "Anglo-Saxon" or "Saxon" though in the OE period one of the Saxon dialects, West Saxon, was the main form of language used in writing?
^ DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL LITERARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE (16TH-19TH C.)

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Economic and Political Unification. Conditions for Linguistic Unity.Progress of culture. Introduction of printing. Foreign contacts in the Early New English period.Expansion of English over the British Isles.Flourishing of literature in Early New English (Literary Renaissance). New sources of information about the language. Private Papers. Didactic compositions. Establish-mentof the Written Standard.Normalising tendencies. Grammars and dictionaries in the late 17th and 18th c. Growth of the Spoken Standard.The modern period. Varieties of English in Britain in the 19th and 20th c. Geographical expansion of the English language from the 17th to 19th c. English outside Great Britain.
Practical assignments

                  1. Describe the events of external history which favoured the growth of the national literary language.

                  2. Can the evolution of language be controlled by man? Recall the efforts made by men-of-letters in the "Normalisation period" to stop the changes and improve the language.

                  3. Comment on the following quotations:

J. Hart (1570): "The flower of the English tongue is used in the Court of London."

G. Puttenham(1589): "... ye shall therefore take the usual speach of the Court, and that of London within IX myles, and not much above. I say this but that in every shyre of England there be gentlemen and others that speake but specially write as good Southerne as w of Middlesex or Surrey do, but not the common people of every shire..."

4. Discuss the social and geographical basis of the literary English language.
^ SPELLING CHANGES IN MIDDLE ENGLISH. RULESOFREADING

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Spelling changes in Middle English. Rules of Reading Middle English.
Practical assignments

  1. Analyze the relationships between the letters and sounds in the given extract and say in which instances the ME spelling system was less phonetic - and more conventional - than the OE system.

  2. Read the following ME words and explain the employment of the italicized letters:

certainly, pacient, carrie, Јillen (NE certainly, patient, carry, kill); geste, gold, (NE jest, gold); was, seson, e.se, sory (NE was, season, ease, sorry); other, th'mken, the, that, nameless, both (NE other, think, the, that, nevertheless, both); a/ere, ег^егу,fight, thief, very (NE affair, every, fight, thief very); yonge,sonne, not, hose (NE young, sun, not, hose); mows, low, loud,toun, how (NE mouse, low, loud, town, how); knowen, whether, stmwnge, what, knyght, taughte (NE know,whether, strange, what, knight, taught).
ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Верба Л.Г. Історія англійської мови. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2006. – 296 с.

2. Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М., 2005. – 348 с.
^ ДОДАТКОВА ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Аракин И.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. – М., 1955.

2. Бруннер К. История английского языка. Перев.с нем. – М.: Иностранная литература, т. I, II, 1956.

3. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева Л.Н. Введение в германскую филологию. – М., 1980.

4. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М., 1976.

5. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л., 1973.

6. Смирницкий А.И. История английского языка. Курс лекций. – М., 1965.

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^ EVOLUTION OF THE SOUND SYSTEM FROM THE 11TH TO 18TH C.

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Word stress in Middle English and Early New English. Vowel Changes in Middle English and Early New English: Unstressed vowels. Main trends in the changes of stressed vowels.

^ Quantitative vowel changes in Early Middle English.

Qualitative vowel changes in Early Middle English: Development of monophthongs. Development of diphthongs.System of vowels in Late Middle English. The Great Vowel Shift.Some interpretations of the Great Vowel Shift. Changes of shortvowels in Early New English. Growth of long monophthongs and diphthongs in Early New English due to vocalisation of consonants.

^ Quantitative vowel changes in Early New English:Principal changes of vowels in Middle English and Early New English.

Evolution of consonants in Middle English and Early New English: Growth of sibilants and affricates.Treatment of fricative consonants in Middle English and Early New English. Loss of consonants. Historical foundations of Modern English spelling. Main historical sources of modern spellings.
Practical assignments

      1. Prove, by instances of phonetic changes, that ME was divided into a number of dialects.

      2. Point out some changes preceding the Great Vowel Shift which display the same directions of evolution.

      3. Confer the system of vowels in OE with that in Late ME and say in which respects it has become less symmetrical.

      4. Account for the interchange of vowels in NE child – children, wild – wilderness, bewilder (ME bewildren), behind – hindrance; in О El the root vowel in these words was [і].

      5. Give a historical explanation of different spellings of the following homophones: NE son, sun; meet, meat; see, sea; rein, rain; vein, vain; soul, sole; main, mane; cease, seize; flour, flower; so sow; law, lore; bare, bear; root, route; or, oar; rode, road. Were all these pairs homophones in ME?

      6. Explain from a historical viewpoint the pronunciation of the following words with the letter g: good, again, general, change, regime.

      7. Account for the difference in the sound values ofth, /in the following words: son, busy, wisdom, mouse, east, diverse (MEdeserven [do'servan]), observe, resemble (MEresemblen [ra'sembta]), books (ME bookes ['bo:kas]), robes (ME robes ['ro:bss]), dresses, thousand, threat, thou, the, mouth, mouths (ME mouthes ['rmr.des]), they, of, fair, fence.

      8. Explainthe origin of different sound values of the following digraphs: ea in seat, dead: ie in chief, lie: on in pound, soup, rough; o\v in sow and how. Why do they indicate other sounds before r, e. G. dear, pear; pier, bier; pour, sour; lower, power.

      9. Recallthe development of OE [у, y:] and explain the differences in the pronunciation and spelling of merry, hill, busy, buy, evil, bury (all descending from OE words with short [y]) and sleeve, fist, mice, sundry (descending from OE words with long [y]).

      10. Show how modern spelling can help to reconstruct the phonetic history of the words; use the following words as examples: NE drive, cast, cart, cord, ant, warn, bird, beard, burn, certain, first, nun, none, bloody, bony, knee, gnat, often, limb.

      11. Give the modem descendants of the following words, which developed in accordance with regular phonetic and spelling changes: OE hind, spedi, dust, sceaft, scTnan, snawan, rzedan, hearm, sceal, wearm, сёар [к'], butere, boc, bat, metan, mёtan, hund, hundred, hwzet, tun, steorfan, prssd, smoca, drlfan, bana, с1ёор, ад.

      12. Reconstruct the phonetic changes so as to prove that the words have descended from a single root: NElisten and loud; merry and mirth; deep and depth; foul and filth; husband and house; long and length; sheep and shepherd; tell, tale and talk; thief and theft; gold, gild and yellow; person and parson.

      13. Account for the mute letters in late, sight, wrong, often, bomb, autumb, course, knowledge, honor, what, whole, guest, pneumonia, psalm.

      14. Try to account for the appearance of mute letters in the following words: NE thumb (OE puma) – NE house (OEhus)\ NE delight (MEdelite) – NE horse (OE hors)\ NE limb (OElirn); NE whole (OE hat).


ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Верба Л.Г. Історія англійської мови. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2006. – 296 с.

2. Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М., 2005. – 348 с.
^ ДОДАТКОВА ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Аракин И.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. – М., 1955.

2. Бруннер К. История английского языка. Перев.с нем. – М.: Иностранная литература, т. I, II, 1956.

3. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева Л.Н. Введение в германскую филологию. – М., 1980.

4. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М., 1976.

5. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л., 1973.

6. Смирницкий А.И. История английского языка. Курс лекций. – М., 1965.

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^ EVOLUTION OF THE GRAMMATICAL SYSTEM FROM THE 11TH TO 18TH C.

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Parts of speech, means of form-building, main trends of development.

The noun: Decay of noun declensions in Early Middle English. Grammatical categories of the noun.

^ The pronoun: Personal and possessive pronouns.Demonstrative pronouns. Development of articles. Other classes of pronouns (interrogative, indefinite, relative).

The adjective: Decay of declensions and grammatical categories.Degrees of comparison. Development of nominal grammatical categories.

The Verb: Finite foms. Number. Person. Mood. Tense. Verbals. Infinitive. Participle. The Development of the Gerund.
Practical assignments

                1. Compare the historical productivity of different form-building meai synthetic (inflections, sound interchanges), analytical, suppletive.

                2. Describe the sources of the modern pi forms of nouns and spread of the ending~(e)s.

                3. Compare the development of case and number in nouns, adjectives and pronouns.

                4. Illustrate the process of replacement by tracing the history of the pronoushe, they, their, him, you, its.

                5. Comment on the forms of pronouns in the following quotations:

'tis better thee without than he within; Between who?; Nay, you need n fear for us; Loving offenders, thus I will excuse ye. (Shakespeare).

                1. What is the connection between the growth of articles, the history pronouns and the decline of adjectival declensions?


^ DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY FROM THE 12TH TO 20TH C.

Topicsfor Self-Testing and Individual Preparation

Types and sources of changes. Scandinavian influence on the vocabulary.French influence on the vocabulary in Middle English. Borrowings from classical languages, with special reference to the age of the Renaissance. Borrowings from contemporary Languages in New English.

^ History of word formation with special reference to the 15th − 17th c. Word derivation. Sound interchanges. Word stress. Prefixation. Native prefixes. Borrowed prefixes. Suffixation.Native suffixes. Borrowed suffixes. Conversion. Word composition in Middle English and Early New English. Simplification. Back formation. Semantic changes in the vocabulary.
Practical assignments

          1. Comment on the English-Scandinavian etymological doublets – skirt – shirt; scatter – shatter.

          2. Compare the French and Scandinavian influence on the Middle English vocabulary (linguistic, geographical and social aspects; the number, nature and spheres of borrowings).

          3. Comment on the following fragment from IVANHOE by W. Scott: 'Why, how call you those grunting brutes running about on their four legs?' demanded Wamba.

'Swine, fool, swine, ...'

'... And swine is good Saxon,' said the Jester; 'but how call you the sow when she is flayed, and drawn, and quartered, and hung up by the heels, like a traitor?'

'Pork,' answered the swine-herd.

'I am very glad every fool knows that too,' said Wamba, 'and pork, I think, is good Norman-French; and so when the brute lives, and is in charge of a Saxon slave, she goes by her Saxon name; but becomes a Norman and is called pork, when she is carried to the Castle hall to feast among the nobles; what dost thou think of this, friend Gurth, ha?'

          1. Describe the semantic changes exemplified by the following words; point out instances of metonymic and metaphoric, narrowing and widening of meaning:

^ NE Earlier meanings (OE or ME)

aunt 'father's sister'

bird 'young fowl'

cany 'transport by cart'

corn 'any grain'

fare 'travel, go'

hound 'dog'

5. Comment on the following statement made by S. Johnson in hie DICTIONARY: "He shall seldom err who remembers that when a verb has a participle distinct from its preterite as write, wrote, written, that distinct participle is more proper and elegant, as the book is written is better than the book is wrote though wrote may be used in poetry..."

6. Make a list of verb inflections in MOD E and trace their origin (show their grammatical and dialectal sources).

7. Why would it be incorrect to apply the terms "strong" and "weak" to Mod E standard and non-standard verbs?

8. Describe the development of the principal forms of the following verbs: OEfedan w„wepan str.,ascian w.,sincan, windan str.

9. Point out traces of OE preterite-present verbs in modern modal verbs.

10. Have all the phrases consisting of have plus Part. II, be plus Part. I and shall/will plus Inf. Become grammatical forms? Describe their histories as instances of splitting.

11. Use the following quotations to describe the history of Continuous forms:

  • It was not for nothing that my nose fell a-bleeding on Black Monday.(Shakespeare)

  • The clock struck ten while the trunks were carrying down... (J. Austen, late 18th c.)

12. What developments in English syntax can be illustrated by the following quotations:

"Madam, my interpreter, what says she? Whereupon dо you look?" "Not from the stars do I my judgment pluck. And yet methinks I have astronomy..."

"How likes you this play, my lord?" (Shakespeare).

13. Recall some instances of grammatical changes which involve several linguistic levels: morphological, syntactic, phonetic, lexical.

14. In this "theory of progress" O. Jespersen asserted that English, being an analytical language, was more advanced than other languages. Consider and criticise some of his arguments:

      • The forms are generally shorter, thus involving less muscular exertion and requiring less time for enunciation.

      • There are not so many of them to burden the memory.

      • Their formation is much more regular.

      • Their syntactic use also presents fewer irregularities.

      • The clumsy repetitions known under of control have become superfluous.

      • A clear and unambiguous understanding is secured through a regular word order.


ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Верба Л.Г. Історія англійської мови. Посібник для студентів та викладачів вищих навчальних закладів. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГА, 2006. – 296 с.

2. Расторгуева Т.А. История английского языка. – М., 2005. – 348 с.
^ ДОДАТКОВА ЛІТЕРАТУРА

1. Аракин И.Д. Очерки по истории английского языка. – М., 1955.

2. Бруннер К. История английского языка. Перев.с нем. – М.: Иностранная литература, т. I, II, 1956.

3. Арсеньева М.Г., Балашова С.П., Берков В.П., Соловьева Л.Н. Введение в германскую филологию. – М., 1980.

4. Иванова И.П., Чахоян Л.П. История английского языка. – М., 1976.

5. Ильиш Б.А. История английского языка. – Л., 1973.

6. Смирницкий А.И. История английского языка. Курс лекций. – М., 1965.

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